ES-NMS: An Expert System for Non- Motorized Transportation Strategies towards EcoCampus in Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)

Mohd Azizul Ladin, Nadira Abdu Rauf, Fariq Ismeth Jaimin, Franklin Lim Tiam Yang, Harryanshah Hamansa


The advancement of technology has led to the introduction of Artificial Intelligence such as expert systems to be used in solving issues regarding to transportation. Expert system is a computer program that is able to perform problem solving tasks at the same level as a human expert. This will be useful as an alternative solution to tackle the inaccessibility and shortage of human experts in certain region of the world. The objective of this study is to develop an expert system to implement strategies for non-motorized transportation system within Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The bulk of the data is obtained through the use of questionnaire given to the human experts to provide the strategies for the non-motorized transportation system. Using the feedback given by the human experts, the expert system is developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic 2013. The developed system is then evaluated by the human experts to validate and verify the system to ensure that it is acceptable to be used by the end-user. The developed expert system is then available to be used by the university to improve its sustainable program, EcoCampus


EcoCampus; Expert system; Non-motorized transport; Sustainable transport system; Transportation

Full Text:



L. Kreiser, M. S. Andersen, B. E. Olsen, S. Speck, J. E. Milner and H. Ashiabor, Carbon Pricing: Design, Experiences and Issues. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015.

J. Pucher and R. Buehler, Cycling towards a more sustainable transport future, Transport Reviews, 37(6), 689–694, 2017.

M. R. M. Yazid, R. Ismail, R. A. O. K. Rahmat and M. Nazri, City residence prepare towards implementation local lane of non motorized, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4(5), 481–485, 2012.

R. Mansyur, R. A. O. K. Rahmat and A. Ismail, A prototype rule-based expert system for travel demand management, UNIMAS E-Journal of Civil Engineering, 4(1), 34–39, 2013.

O. C. A. Angira, Challenges and opportunities for sustainable urban mobility (Non-motorized transport): A case study of ‘Nyamakima Area’, Nairobi County, Kenya, MSc. Dissertation, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 2013.

H. M. Noor, M. Azlima and R. M. Zainol, Aktiviti berbasikal: Pemangkin kelestarian kampus (Cycling activities: A catalyst for maintaining campus sustainability), Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 14(3), 85–100, 2018.

M. R. M. Yazid, M. N. Borhan and R. Ismail, Faktor analisis pendorong dan penghalang kepada kenderaan tidak bermotor di Bangi (Factor analysis to encourage and discourage non-motorised vehicles in Bangi), Akademika, 88(1), 209–224, 2018.

M. Lambert and K. K. Cushing, How low can you go?: Understanding ecological footprint reduction in university students, faculty and staff. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 18(7), 1142–1156, 2017.

D. Mfinanga and E. Madinda, Public transport and daladala service improvement prospects in Dar es Salaam, in Paratransit in African Cities: Operations, Regulation and Reform, 1st ed, R. Behrens, D. McCormick and D. Mfinanga (Eds.), Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2016, pp. 155–173.

A. Caviedes and M. Figliozzi, Modeling the impact of traffic conditions and bicycle facilities on cyclists’ on-road stress levels, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 58, 488–499, 2018.

V. Korchagin, A. Pogodaev, V. Kliavin and V. Sitnikov, Scientific basis of the expert system of road safety, Transportation Research Procedia, 20, 321–325, 2017.

S. Poeschl, J. Lieb, F. Wirth and T. Bauernhansl, Expert systems in special machinery: Increasing the productivity of processes in commissioning. Procedia CIRP, 63, 545–550, 2017.

K. L. Mosier and L. J. Skitka, Human decision makers and automated decision aids: Made for each other?, in Automation and Human Performance: Theory and Applications, R. Parasuraman and M. Mouloua (Eds.), NJ: Erlbaum, 1996, pp. 201–220.

W. Wen, A dynamic and automatic traffic light control expert system for solving the road congestion problem, Expert Systems with Applications, 34(4), 2370–2381, 2008.

U. Lindqvist and P. A. Porras, Detecting computer and network misuse through the production-based expert system toolset (P-BEST), Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland, USA, 1999, pp. 146–161.

G. Ascia, V. Catania, G. Ficili, S. Palazzo and D. Panno, A VLSI fuzzy expert system for real-time traffic control in ATM networks. IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, 5(1), 20–31, 1997.

S. G. Ritchie, Expert systems in pavement management, Transportation Research Part A: General, 21(2), 145–152, 1987.

C. Zozaya-Gorostiza and C. Hendrickson, Expert system for traffic signal setting assistance, Journal of Transportation Engineering, 113(2), 108–126, 1987.

T. Frantti and M. Majanen, An expert system for real-time traffic management in wireless local area networks, Expert Systems with Applications, 41(10), 4996–5008, 2014.

X. Zhao, C. J. Hsu, R. Xu and P. Huang, Introduction of an expert system based traffic signal analysis tool, Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting, Washington DC, USA, 2015, pp. 1–24.

D. B. K. Kamesh, D. S. K. Sumadhuri, M. S. V. Sahithi and J. K. R. Sastry, An efficient architectural model for building cognitive expert system related to traffic management in smart cities, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(9), 2437–2445, 2017.

Z. Zhang, Q. Jiang, B. Sun, L. Song, R. Wang, T. Mei, X. Huang, L. Wang and B. Yu, Researches on expert system for automatic driving traffic rules of unmanned vehicle, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1069, 1-10, 2018.


  • There are currently no refbacks.